This semester, Harvard Law School launched the Law and History program of study. The new program of study joins six others, including Law and Social Change, Law and Business, and Law, Science and Technology. These programs guide students in navigating HLS’ extensive course offerings and connect them with faculty whose interests they share. The Law and History program of study is headed by two faculty leaders: Professor Tomiko Brown-Nagin, who is also a professor of history in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, and Professor Kenneth Mack.In this Q&A, Brown-Nagin discusses the origins and goals of the new program of study as well as her own scholarship.What does the Law and History program of study aim to do?The goal of the program is to make students aware that there are a number of world class legal historians on the faculty at Harvard Law School who have a lot to offer to students who are interested in history casually, but also to students who might be considering a career in academia. We’re also building community. As of next year, we will be including students in the legal history colloquium, which will be a class where students can meet professors who are coming to present their work. I think there’s a fabulous opportunity for students to network with people who are successful in their profession.Read the rest of the interview on the Harvard Law School website. Read Full Story
Read Full Story Young people who start taking antidepressants at higher-than-average doses may be twice as likely to commit suicide, especially in the first three months of treatment, as those who begin treatment with customary doses, according to a new study led by Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH).Earlier studies found that taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRIs) increased suicidal thinking and behavior in young people, which prompted the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to issue warnings about the drugs 10 years ago. The new study suggests that it may be the initial dose of such drugs that matters most.The study, “Antidepressant Dose, Age, and the Risk of Deliberate Self-harm,” published online April 28, 2014 in JAMA Internal Medicine, was led by injury prevention expert Matthew Miller, associate professor of health policy and management at HSPH. Looking at data from 162,625 young people treated for depression with SSRIs between 1998 and 2010, Miller and colleagues found that there was roughly one additional suicide attempt for every 150 young people who started with higher doses of antidepressants.
Successful businesswoman, best-selling author, and Harvard alumna Sheryl Sandberg ’91, M.B.A. ’95, has been chosen as the 2014 Class Day speaker. Sandberg, the chief operating officer of Facebook and founder of LeanIn.Org, will address seniors in Tercentenary Theatre on May 28, the day before Harvard’s 363rd Commencement.“Sheryl Sandberg has been an inspirational advocate, thinking critically about social issues and striving to make a positive difference in our world. As we go forth from Harvard, we’re hopeful to hear from her on how we can realize what’s important to us not only professionally but also personally, and what we can do to see a more equitable society,” said First Marshal Jen Zhu ’14.Soon after receiving her M.B.A., Sandberg became a senior official in the U.S. Treasury Department. She joined Google in 2001, becoming vice president of global online sales and operations. In 2008, Sandberg became the chief operating officer at Facebook.“Her career has spanned government, business, and tech. She took huge risks professionally, joining both Google and Facebook in their early days, when each company’s business model was not yet certain. She is an inspiring leader, activist, and businesswoman. We are overjoyed that she will be addressing us at Class Day,” said Marshal Virginia Fahs ’14.Sandberg is also the author of “Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead,” published in 2013. The best-selling book, which discusses barriers women face in reaching their professional goals, inspired LeanIn.org, an organization “committed to offering women the ongoing inspiration and support to help them achieve their goals.”“Sheryl Sandberg’s work and advocacy have sparked valuable discussions within our class and around campus, especially as we look forward to entering the professional world. Her ideas and example challenge us to think and act critically as soon-to-be graduates,” said Marshal Roland Yang ’14.Class Day ceremonies, which will begin at 2 p.m., will also feature Harvard orators Adam J. Conner ’14 and Christie L. Disilvestro ’14, Ivy orators Zack W. Guzman ’14 and Jenna D. Martin ’14, the Harvard University Band, and remarks from interim Harvard College Dean Donald Pfister.“The Senior Class Committee is ecstatic to bring Sheryl Sandberg to Class Day,” said Irene Chen ’14, a senior class committee member. “Because she was Harvard College Class of 1991, she can relate to the Harvard undergraduate experience, and we look forward to hearing her thoughts on Class Day.”
Windsurfer Gonzalo Giribet and pianist Vijay Iyer have also been featured in Practice, a series of profiles zeroing in on the makings of performance.A surgeon’s knot seems a simple thing, tied to keep the insides in and the outside out.But a simple knot can be harder — and more vital — than it looks. A surgeon tying a knot isn’t like the rest of us tying our shoes, unless you sometimes tie with one hand or clutch your laces with surgical instruments.For physicians who’ve delved into the mysteries of loops, throws, and ears, square knots are routine and, with an extra overhand turn, become surgeon’s knots, less likely to slip. Only when they’re mastered can they be used in procedures, where knowledge of anatomy and disease are also crucial, where a knot too loose can cause a wound to leak and one too tight can kill the tissue it encircles.“I learned by practicing constantly as a medical student,” said Terry Buchmiller, an assistant professor of surgery at Harvard Medical School and Harvard-affiliated Boston Children’s Hospital. “The nurses would let us take the extra suture that wasn’t used during an operation. They’d always slide it to the medical student so we could grab it and go back and just sit and doodle [with it] and tie knots at home.” By now, the many steps behind a successful surgery — including knot-tying — are mostly second nature to Buchmiller, who specializes in the delicate work required on small children, newborns, and, when necessary, fetuses in the womb.But in the beginning, surgery was exactly as music had been.Growing up in Cupertino, Calif., Buchmiller first picked up the violin at 7, spending hour upon hour practicing the scales and finger positions. By high school she’d performed in two symphonies. She was a music major in college, practicing five or six hours a day to master a piece: the perfect placement of her fingers, the just-so angle of the bow, the bouncing arpeggio stroke, the tremolo’s fluttering repetition. As a member of the Longwood Symphony Orchestra, the memory of those sessions is more a feature of action than reflection.“At one point, in high school, I played three to four to five hours a day; during college, as a music performance major, sometimes five to six hours a day. So it was a tremendous amount of focus on that skill.”But it was a focus held in balance. Buchmiller had taken up her pediatrician on his offer to follow him around and observe his work. She was 15 when she saw her first surgery, at the University of California at San Francisco. She was always fascinated by the ability to fix what ailed people.“That interest never waned,” Buchmiller said. “I never had to decide what to do when I grew up.”‘You walk in and there’s a performance, that one-time performance for that patient.’Though the two may seem opposites, medicine and music have pulled her along instead of apart, Buchmiller said. The way of practice taught to her by music was mirrored in medicine: Break the complex down to its composite parts, learn those parts through intense practice, and then put them together into a greater whole.“The traditional way surgery and music is taught, the way that I learned both, was to focus on the individual building blocks, each individual skill, and then learn the big picture. Very scientific and very logical at the beginning and putting in the emotional part and the nuances only when your fingers know what to do, when your hands know what to do.”Even after years of performing general surgery, there was still plenty to learn, as Buchmiller realized when she arrived at Children’s Hospital in 1995 to begin her fellowship in pediatric surgery.“I could tie knots perfectly for a general surgeon, but now let’s try some on a baby. You’ve been through nine years of general surgery training and then you were told … well, that you had an opportunity to learn to be gentle all over again. That philosophy — because we do work on babies and children — that delicacy is paramount is something that is still ingrained in my head. Every time I go into the operating room, I still hear that voice from my mentor, and maintain a critical eye for not only my fellows’ and my residents’ hands, but mine as well.”But medicine is more than craft. The surgical skills that seem important to her today aren’t physical tricks or manipulations of the scalpel, but qualities of mind: focus and teamwork.“I think one is stamina. There’s no question that the ability to stay focused is a huge piece of surgery. This intense focus — I mean, hours can go by. Music may not [require] the same stamina, musical concerts are usually for a finite time, but I think the team-building skills are fairly similar.“Whether or not you’re the head of a surgical team in the operating room or if it’s just you and a pianist, or you as part of a symphony orchestra, it’s a team.”An operation requires a unit just as a symphony requires individual musicians. Each individual has to master specific skills, whether it’s administering anesthesia or playing certain notes, for the group to realize its goal.“If you really look at the way a conductor rehearses a symphony, they break the parts down and they drill [musicians] in the parts and then, only when we know the mechanics of it, can the conductor really be free to put the whole together to make the music, interpret the music,” Buchmiller said.“Our conductor’s always trying to embed in our … heads, ‘Please don’t wait until the last week to learn the notes because I want to make the music and I can’t make the music until you all really know the notes.’”Years of playing the violin helped shape Buchmiller’s approach to medical training.Then there are the notes of the operating room, individual acts by doctors and nurses and even by increasingly sophisticated machines, beeping and whooshing and tracing bright lines. These notes, punctuated, if all goes well, by the perfect knot, will never be played in quite the same way again, but the patient will live with them forever.“You walk in and there’s a performance, that one-time performance for that patient,” Buchmiller said. “You want the scar to be beautiful, because the kids are going to have that for, God willing, 70 or 80 years.”
Is it a hand up or a hand out?Historically, much of the public debate about the nation’s social safety net has centered on its efficacy or its cost to taxpayers. There’s been a strong, widely held presumption that such programs are burdensome charities that encourage laziness and yield little economic benefit to society.Gareth Olds, 29, an assistant professor who studies labor economics in Harvard Business School’s (HBS) entrepreneurial management unit, had good reason to suspect that perception was off the mark, but found almost no existing research to confirm or contradict his hunch.“There’s already good evidence that income support and public programs do return investments for a society independent of any kind of moral claim that they have,” he said. “They’re good economic bets. Similar studies have been done on public education, and yet it’s something we continue to cut and cut and cut.”Olds specifically wanted to know whether a stronger safety net had an effect on parents and entrepreneurship. So he dug into 20 years of data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s Current Population Survey (CPS) on enrollment in the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). Modeled after a Massachusetts initiative championed by the late Sen. Edward M. Kennedy, SCHIP is a national program launched in 1996 that pays all or most of the health insurance premium costs for children whose parents earn too much to qualify for Medicaid, but still aren’t able to provide coverage for their children. At its peak, 13 percent of U.S. households had children insured through the program. While the program still exists, the Affordable Care Act now provides much of the same benefits.“It’s not by accident that we have one of the most educated workforces on the planet. It’s at least in part because of the G.I. Bill,” Olds said. But as public benefits have been cut significantly in recent years, perhaps it’s no accident that the dynamism of the American economy has similarly waned. “These are open questions we can answer with data, so let’s really dig in and figure out what’s going on here.”His findings in a new draft paper confirm that SCHIP did what lawmakers hoped it would do: Households made eligible for coverage were 40 percent less likely to have uninsured children. But Olds’ research found that the program had an unexpected side effect, as well. It led to a 15 percent increase in the self-employment rate among eligible households. Those businesses were disproportionately more likely to be serious, high-quality ventures, not glorified hobbies.Using a rigorous, two-phased methodological approach to tease out causes from correlations, Olds looked at whether households were eligible for coverage and then compared households that were barely eligible to those that just missed qualifying to see what happened in them before the program and afterward.Households that barely qualified for coverage were 20 to 25 percent more likely to have a small business, suggesting a link between becoming eligible and starting a business. In fact, the program increased incorporated businesses by 36 percent and drove up the share of household income generated by these businesses by 12 percent, according to the research.The results also showed that when middle- and lower-income parents had a risk of an uninsured child getting seriously ill, they acted similarly. Their behavior was not driven by households enrolling in SCHIP, but by simply knowing they had the option to do so, the results showed.These findings upend calcified notions that social welfare programs stifle economic growth or that the poor are not motivated to become entrepreneurs or be “job creators.”“This is important from a policy standpoint. If you’re going to design a program, you want to know whether this is an effect of just giving people money, or is it the decoupling of an insurance benefit from employment?” he said.Contrary to shopworn expectations, households with access to private insurance from an employer before SCHIP did not migrate en masse to the program to take advantage of a freebie. It appears that simply knowing the safety net was available to them was key because it reduced the perception of risk that likely would inhibit starting a venture. It’s an unrecognized spillover benefit that policymakers so far have not accounted for, one that is undermined when the social safety net is weakened, the paper concludes.Olds’ research isn’t just professional, it’s personal. While studying developmental economics in Lesotho as a graduate student at Brown University, he became interested in the parallels to U.S. labor economics. So he drew upon that traditional counsel to writers, “write what you know,” and applied it to his work.“I started thinking about my parents’ business. My parents started a business when I was 11, and we had been on public benefits for a long time before then. I was curious whether those two were connected,” he said. “I wanted to know whether a stronger safety net encouraged people to start businesses or enabled them in some way to start businesses.”Growing up in Anchorage, Alaska, his family struggled for the first decade of his life, relying on a number of programs such as Medicaid, food stamps, and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) to help make ends meet. Once stabilized, his stepfather eventually found work as a dental assistant while his mother did odd jobs here and there — cleaning houses, delivering phone books, and coaching pregnant women as a doula. To better their circumstances, his stepdad started a weekend vocational school, training students to become dental assistants, most of whom also received some public benefits.‘I don’t think my mom would’ve been able to go to college without this business and without some kind of buffer.’“There wouldn’t be students for my parents’ business without these workfare programs to encourage vocational training. My parents wouldn’t have been able to save any money to start this business, [and] they couldn’t have taken time off” to get it off the ground if they had to take on a second wage-paying job just to stay afloat, he said.“I don’t think my mom would’ve been able to go to college without this business and without some kind of buffer, this knowledge that if things really went south with the business, we’d still have insurance, we wouldn’t be hungry. It was a big, important piece of her calculus in going to school and getting a college education,” Olds said of his mother, who earned a nursing degree when he was in high school.Olds concedes that his unusually personal connection has generated some pushback from colleagues — “quite rightfully so” — about the findings. “In research, people are suspicious if you’re writing about something you really have a personal stake in because [they] worry that there’s a subtle bias or you’re going to find what you’re looking for,” he said, explaining why he applied a two-pronged methodology “to really nail down the empirics of this.”Ultimately, Olds hopes the paper will stimulate some creative thinking on public policy design.“I see this as a bipartisan issue. We want to encourage innovation, we want to encourage people to take risks and take ownership of their lives,” he said, so “why wouldn’t we want to do everything we can to encourage that?”
In medicine, orthopaedics has traditionally been a male-dominated field. But that doesn’t mean it has to stay that way.Now in its third year, the B.O.N.E.S. (Bringing Orthopedics to New England Students of Medicine) Initiative is a half-day event hosted by the women of the Harvard Combined Orthopaedic Residency Program that provides networking opportunities, information, and hands-on experience with orthopaedics for female medical students from all around New England.Dr. Brandon Earp, Brigham and Women’s Faulkner Hospital’s chief of orthopaedics, was among the organizers of the May 12 session. She said, “The goal is to show female medical school students what we do and hopefully interest them in pursuing a similar career path.”Though orthopaedics has been a male specialty, Earp said that’s changing. “There is a perception that you need to be big and strong to be an orthopaedic surgeon. I like to think it’s more about being smart and thoughtful and using finesse rather than brawn.” The B.O.N.E.S. Initiative, held at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, was designed to show young women how rewarding a career in orthopaedic surgery can be.“During the main part of the day, we have them practice suturing on pigs’ feet, do splinting and casting, use the drills and put in hardware that we would use for fracture patients. We also have them do reconstructive techniques for sports injuries. It’s all designed to give them a broad picture of the different procedures we do,” said Earp.,“There is a perception that you need to be big and strong to be an orthopaedic surgeon. I like to think it’s more about being smart and thoughtful and using finesse rather than brawn.” — Dr. Brandon Earp, Brigham and Women’s Faulkner Hospital’s chief of orthopaedics
Roy J. Glauber ’46, the pioneering theoretical physicist who received the Nobel Prize in 2005 and was one of the last living scientists to have been present for the dawn of the atomic age, died on Dec. 26, 2018. He was 93.The research that set Glauber on the path to a Nobel began with his interest in a groundbreaking 1956 experiment that confirmed a key concept of quantum physics — that light was both a particle and a wave — and laid the groundwork for the field. His landmark 1963 paper, “The Quantum Theory of Optical Coherence,” used quantum mechanical tools to transform science’s understanding of light, which previously had only been studied using classical techniques.“We really did not have a complete understanding of the quantum properties of light, and what Roy’s work laid out was a framework for thinking about that,” said Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative. “It allowed us to think about these types of questions quantitatively … so I would argue that his work very much laid the groundwork for the field of quantum science and technology that people are talking about right now.”Lukin said the theories outlined by Glauber opened the door for many scientific discoveries as well as next-generation technologies, including quantum computers and networks and the use of quantum cryptography, which relies on quantum mechanics to create impossible-to-crack codes.“Those ideas all grow out of this framework that he developed,” Lukin said. “Some people refer to these new developments as the second quantum revolution — the first was about understanding the laws of quantum mechanics. But in this second revolution … the idea is that now that we understand the quantum world and we can actually control it, let’s see what we can use it for. Can we build materials with properties which you design on demand? Can we build quantum computers? Can we build quantum networks where we can send information with absolute security from one side of the country to the other? These types of ideas very much depend on understanding where the classical world ends and the quantum world starts, and that’s where these ideas Roy pioneered and developed become absolutely critical.”Glauber graduated from the Bronx High School of Science and entered Harvard as a 16-year-old freshman, but left as a sophomore when he was recruited to join the Manhattan Project, where he worked with future Nobel-winning physicist Richard Feynman to calculate the critical mass of the first atomic bomb. Glauber was later present at the first tests of the bomb.Following World War II, he returned to Harvard to finish his undergraduate studies and later earn a Ph.D. After receiving his doctorate he was recruited to a position at the Institute for Advanced Study by Robert Oppenheimer, and worked there before returning to Harvard in 1952, where he spent the remainder of his career.Though he was known for taking his scientific work seriously, friends said Glauber wasn’t without a lighter side. For years, he was “keeper of the broom,” clearing the stage of paper airplanes thrown during the annual Ig Nobel Prize ceremony recognizing unusual or trivial scientific achievements.One of the few years Glauber missed the Ig Nobel ceremony was in 2005 — because he was in Stockholm collecting his real Nobel.“I think he took real glee in his role at the Ig Noble ceremony,” said Arthur Jaffe, the Landon T. Clay Professor of Mathematics and Theoretical Science. “He loved to describe with a smile his role as the janitor, sweeping the stage at the end of the performance.”In his spare time, Jaffe said, Glauber had great interest in classical music. He and his partner, Atholie Rosett, occasionally hosted events for one local performing group in their home.“People consider him a father of … a huge area of physics that has been very prolific in modern life,” Jaffe said. “He always had a very clear opinion about his evaluation of other scientists. Personally he remained modest; his character did not change at all after the Nobel Prize.”Irwin Shapiro, the Timken University Professor, knew Glauber for more than six decades, first as a student and later as his colleague. He credits Glauber with ensuring that he got his first job after receiving his Ph.D.“He was only four years older than I, and he called the head of the MIT Lincoln Laboratory who was thinking of hiring me and suggested, with no uncertainty, that he do so,” Shapiro said.Though both had grown up in New York, they had never met before Shapiro became Glauber’s first doctoral student.“One anecdote that made him laugh when I told him was, when I first became his advisee in 1952, I told my mother about it and mentioned Roy’s name as my adviser,” Shapiro recalled. “She somehow mentioned it to her younger sister, who piped up and said, ‘Oh, Felicia’s little boy, Roy!’ I don’t know how my aunt knew Roy’s mother, but somehow they had been friends.”Glauber is survived by his son, Jeffrey, a daughter, Valerie Glauber Fleishman; a sister, Jacqueline Gordon; Rosett, his companion of 13 years; and five grandchildren.
The analyst firm IDC has cleverly delineated the evolution of computing over the past 40+ years into three eras or platforms – the mainframe platform of the 70’s, the client/server platform of the 90’s, and the Big Data, Cloud, Social, and Mobile platform of today.One of the interesting trends of this third platform and the rapid and extensive proliferation of mobile technology that has been one of its hallmarks is the consumerization of IT. Companies are giving employees greater latitude in accessing corporate resources and data via their own personal devices (Bring Your Own Device or BYOD).In 2014, we will begin to see the next wave of the consumerization of IT with the emergence of the consumerization of ID or identity. Just as employees pushed for the simplicity of a single mobile device for both their personal and professional needs, they are beginning to push for a simpler, yet controlled, system of identification for authorization of personal and professional device usage.We are witnessing the dawn of Bring (and Control) Your Own Identity (BYOI), which will be marked by two developments:Our digital identities will become consolidated, centralized, and secured on our devices and less entrusted to external parties like Facebook and Google.The security industry’s growing adoption of an Intelligence-Driven Security model will mean identity is less a perimeter-based gateway and more a multi-faceted, continuously authenticating process that is more seamlessly integrated within our workflow.As it turns out, BYOD was only the beginning. Brace yourself for 2014 and BYOI.You can see more of Art’s predictions for 2014 in his end of year letter.—More Predictions for 2014SDx (Software-Defined Everything) by Amitabh Srivastava, President, Advanced Software DivisionA Battle Cry for Protected Storage by Stephen Manley, Chief Technology Officer, Data Protection & Availability DivisionSoftware-Defined in Two Architectures by Josh Kahn, Senior Vice President, Global Solutions MarketingBringing Hadoop to Your Big Data by Bill Richter, President, EMC IsilonA Whole New World by CJ Desai, President, Emerging Technologies DivisionTargeting the Value Office to Transform IT Business by Rick Devenuti, President, Information Intelligence GroupIT’s Ability to Evolve Quickly by Vic Bhagat, Chief Information OfficerService Orientation, Big Data Lakes, & Security Product Rationalization by Tom Roloff, Senior Vice President, EMC Global Services
It’s time again for Gartner Data Center, Infrastructure & Operations Management Conference, or Gartner Data Center for short. For VCE, that means another great opportunity to connect with customers, partners, and others face to face. But this year we wanted to make sure no one is left out. For that reason, we will be sharing as much of the conference as we can with you. That includes live tweets from CTO Hyper-Convergence John Lockyer (@Johnloc), Social Manager Paul Young (@youngp2), and myself (@JayCuthrell). In addition we will be running a live blog here on the Vblog with summaries and big takeaways from key sessions. So follow along and let us know in the comments if there is anything you would really like to hear about.So what will we be covering? Here are just a few examples.Solution ShowcaseDon’t miss your chance to speak with the VCE team at our booth (#324) in the Solution Showcase. There will be great learning and hands on opportunities. Talk with the team and get your badge scanned for a chance to win an Apple Watch. For those at home you can still get a walkthrough of the booth here on the Vblog.Booth staff presenting to packed audience at VMworldLeveraging Convergence and Cloud in the Agile Digital EnterpriseIf you are at the conference, don’t miss the opportunity to see VCE, John Lockyer talk with CenturyLink’s Director of Product Management for Cloud Solutions, Michael Joffe on the benefits of converged infrastructure for hybrid IT solutions. Sessions like this are particularly interesting because of the opportunity to hear the customer and solution provider perspectives.The Journey to Best-in-Class, Enterprise-Defined Data Center Starts NowThis opening keynote from Gartner VPs will be a great way to set the perspectives for the conference. It promises to touch on the core competencies required to be successful in the age of the “enterprise-defined data center” no matter what new technologies or services come along.The Integrated Systems Magic QuadrantGartner takes a look at their famous magic quadrant analysis. This session promises to take a look through the challenges and opportunities for vendors in the integrated systems market. It will be interesting to hear how expectations have changed since the 2015 report first came out.VCE Users Group DinnerSome of the best information you can get a conference is had over a late night dinner. There will be an ‘Ask VCE’ discussion panel with guests including CEO Praveen Akkiraju. We will also let you know what users are excited about and what use cases are interesting.2016 CIO Agenda: Implications to I&OAnother great keynote by Gartner, we will get a view into CIO priorities in 2016. Will they match your expectations? Are you prepared for the increase of decrease in spend? This should be a great conversation starter.Your best bet to stay connected is subscribe to this blog and follow along with our Twitter accounts (@VCE, @Johnloc, @youngp2, @JayCuthrell). Again if there is anything that you would like to see specifically, leave a note in the comments or message us on Twitter. See you at the show!
If I were to ask you, what is the most important thing in your life? Most of you would answer, your loved ones.If I said, assume your loved ones are safe and sound, sitting on a beach in Aruba, but there is a disaster happening at your house, right now. Fire, or maybe even more invasively, a burglary. What would you be most concerned about? I think most of you would say, your memories, and some would say your critical files and information.It is no different for the companies you work for. In your work life, the most important assets you have are your people and your data. Back to the home scenario; if I were to ask you how, when and where you are most concerned for your loved ones, memories and critical information, you would likely say: “what a silly question, All the Time, Everywhere and in Every situation.” When you think about work assets, we believe the answers to those questions are the same; you need your assets protected all of the time and in every situation, regardless of where they are.Let’s start with the people, just like your loved ones, you never want your people to be attacked, get a virus or be frightened about which street or dark alley into which they should or should not venture. Now let’s think about information….data. Just as in your home life, how you generate your data and where you use or consume your data has drastically changed in recent years. At home, you were tied to physical photos, paper files, and largely kept your important data locked in a file box or safety deposit box. Today, your photos are digital, your data is on many different devices and is almost exclusively digital. The same is true for your work life. How many of you work outside of the office at least once a week? According to the Dell Future Workforce study in 2016, that number is 52 percent. Ten years ago, or even five, the number of you who did so would have been far less – almost approaching zero.As your employees use more diverse devices, work from almost anywhere, and expose themselves to physical and digital theft scenarios, you need protections in place to help protect your critical assets – and allow you to sleep at night. Your data must be protected at the point of creation, and stay protected when they are shared with partners, or even when they fall into the wrong hands. Wouldn’t you like to have visibility into where your data is being used, by whom, where and on what device?It is now possible to protect data to the file level – and not just when they are at rest on a device inside the network, but also when they’re in motion or in use, and sent outside of the corporate network. Imagine that your marketing team was working with a group of contractors and had to send information about future products to this group in order to develop launch materials. Now your upcoming product strategy is in the hands of temporary external workers. Risky, right? So what if you were able to control that data, determine who has access, apply policies and monitor the activity. This can be as general or as granular as you would like. For example, you want these contractors to have access to these documents to do the work, but when their contract was up next month, set an expiry so they can no longer access them after that date. You can also restrict cutting and pasting, printing or forwarding onwards. Feel more in control? This can all be done without hindering productivity.Dell Data Guardian is the next generation of file-level data encryption. It does exactly what I’ve described above – give organizations control and visibility over their data in addition to protecting it. Companies today need to be able to control who gets access to their data, monitor where the data is and how it is used, and be able to apply rights and policies so that only the right people can access it under the right circumstances. We are here to help. This is what we do every day.For more information, go to http://datasecurity.dell.com