The effects of nitric oxide cooling and the photodissociation of molecular oxygen on the thermosphere/ionosphere system over the Argentine Islands

first_imgIn the past the global, fully coupled, time-dependent mathematical model of the Earth’s thermo-sphere/ionosphere/plasmasphere (CTIP) has been unable to reproduce accurately observed values of the maximum plasma frequency, foF2, at extreme geophysical locations such as the Argentine Islands during the summer solstice where the ionosphere remains in sunlight throughout the day. This is probably because the seasonal dependence of thermospheric cooling by 5.3 μm nitric oxide has been neglected and the photodissociation of O2 and heating rate calculations have been over-simplified. Now we have included an up-to-date calculation of the solar EUV and UV thermospheric heating rate, coupled with a new calculation of a diurnally varying O2 photodissociation rate, in the model. Seasonally dependent 5.3 μm nitric oxide cooling is also included. With these important improvements, it is found that model values of foF2 are in substantially better agreement with observation. The height of the F2-peak is reduced throughout the day, but remains within acceptable limits of values derived from observation, except at around 0600 h LT. We also carry out two studies of the sensitivity of the upper atmosphere to changes in the magnitude of nitric oxide cooling and photodissociation rates. We find that hmF2 increases with increased heating, whilst foF2 falls. The converse is true for an increase in the cooling rate. Similarly increasing the photodissociation rate increases both hmF2 and foF2. These changes are explained in terms of changes in the neutral temperature, composition and neutral wind.last_img read more


first_imgWe manage the buying for Subway’s franchises in the UK, Ireland and Germany.For Subway, 2006 will be all about increasing store numbers and making strides towards our growth goals – we want to have 2,010 stores in the UK and Ireland by the matching year of 2010. In 2005 there was an increasing awareness of what we eat. I think that will not diminish in 2006, unlike some fad diets. It will continue to get stronger and healthy eating will become an unconscious decision for consumers.We are starting to see the work the major branded manufacturers have been doing on healthy options come to market – for example lower salt products. Healthy eating will become baked into the way we eat, if you forgive the pun!last_img read more

Reporting in

first_imgJulian HuntDirector of communications, Food and Drink FederationThe constant pressure to keep changing the recipes of your products, so that they are lower in salt or fat is I know only too well a source of real frustration for bakers.Any recipe development poses very significant technical, financial and consumer challenges that companies have to overcome; every change needs to be done in a way that does not impact taste, quality or price. But no matter how much you do and the UK industry is at the cutting edge of such developments it seems there is always someone asking you to keep pushing the boun-daries; to do more reformulation; to take more risks with your brands.The question I am now being asked by our members is whether or not things will change after the general election? In short, the answer is an emphatic ’no’. Like it or not, the focus on reformulation will still be topping the political agenda, irrespective of which Party is elected.I say that because the current government has put reformulation right at the heart of its public health agenda. And the Tories have recently unveiled their plans to create a new Department for Public Health which will, among other things, encourage the industry to agree further objectives to reduce salt, saturated fats and sugar levels in food and drink products.What may change is the way in which such work is conducted. The Tories have also committed to focus the Food Standards Agency on safety issues, transferring its nutrition responsibilities to the new Department for Public Health. Clearly, such a change would have a massive impact on the way that government interacts with industry on these issues and would change the broader political debate about food and health issues.Irrespective of who is leading these conversations, however, I predict reformulation will remain a key talking point. You have been warned!last_img read more

Strong sandwich sales aid Greencore’s profits

first_imgStrong sandwich sales and consumer demand for meal deals has helped Greencore to up its operating profit by 31.8%, to €25.9m for the half year ended 26 March, 2010.Food to Go, its largest category business with its Convenience Foods division, has seen strong year-on-year sales as consumers “return to the food to go fixture”, with ‘meal deals’ of increased importance, said the firm in its interim results statement. Its sandwich volumes grew ahead of the market, up 7.4% for the 52 weeks to 21 March, compared to an overall market increase of 6.4%.Following the disposal of its Malt business, which was completed in March 2010, Convenience Foods represents over 90% of the group’s total sales and operating profit, with turnover from continuing operations up 6.1% to €397m.The firm said its Cakes and Desserts business had a satisfactory first half in a difficult environment. “The market has been driven significantly by promotional activity which, although driving sales growth, has impacted margins,” commented Greencore, adding that consumers have generally been trading down in the category and reducing the purchase frequency of higher tier lines.Its Foodservice Desserts business, Ministry of Cake, achieved a solid first half performance in a market that has been flat year-on-year, with the Christmas period providing a sales boost. Group sales, from continuing operations, rose 2.1% to €434.5m, with operating profit up 43% to €27.7m.last_img read more

Press release: Ministry of Justice secures extra £52 million for targeted expenditure

first_imgThe Budget also committed to funding a review by the Law Commission into simplifying the rules around marriage ceremonies in England and Wales and propose options for a simpler and fairer system to give couples greater choice and reduce prices in a notoriously expensive market. It will look at reducing unnecessary red tape supporting small and medium-sized businesses in the hospitality sector, like hotels and pubs, to host weddings and boost their income.Notes to editors I am pleased that the Treasury has given us this extra £52 million which will help address the acute problems facing our prisons and begin to improve the conditions of some of our courts. We have also secured a cash boost for the Parole Board to support its operations, especially the extra work associated with our transparency reforms. The Treasury will also fund the cost of building a new prison at Glen Parva in Leicestershire. This significant investment will allow us to get started on construction sooner since planning permission was granted in the summer.The new Glen Parva will accommodate around 1,680 prisoners which, along with an equivalently-sized new prison at Wellingborough in Northamptonshire, is an important step towards delivering on our commitment to building up to 10,000 decent new prison places.An extra £30 million will be spent on prisons this financial year on top of the £40 million we announced over the summer. The money will go towards further improvements to safety, security and decency on top of those already announced such as the roll-out of body scanners and phone-blocking technology.There is also a further £15 million to spend this year on the maintenance and security of our court buildings. Spending more this year in our courts will ensure that our ageing estate remains fit for the 21st century as we invest £1 billion in modernising services and moving more online making them easier to use, more efficient and saving taxpayers’ money.Another £6.5 million will be invested across the wider justice system, including a further £1.5 million for the Parole Board to boost its operational capacity.Commenting on the Budget, the Secretary of State for Justice David Gauke said: The Treasury have committed to providing the capital funding to build the new prison at Glen Parva. While we cannot comment at this stage on the anticipated cost, the newest prison in the estate, HMP Berwyn in North Wales, cost £250 million when it was built in 2015/16. The Ministry’s Spending Review 2015 settlement set the department on a course to reduce spend by 11% between 2015/16 and 2019/20. The figures on the Ministry of Justice from yesterday’s announcement of next year’s settlement are not new. We are continuing to engage with HM Treasury on ensuring that the justice system has sufficient funding in both the short and medium term, ahead of the Spending Review in 2019. The department continues to work to ensure that the department’s finances are set on a long term sustainable footing. This budget means that since July, we are directing an additional £70 million to tackling drugs and violence, and improving the basic conditions of our prisons. Treasury’s commitment to funding a new prison at Glen Parva is an important step to getting this built as soon as possible and will ease the pressure on our prisons.last_img read more

Phish Shares Pro-Shot Video Of Deep, Bubbly “Light” From Camden Night One [Watch]

first_imgOn Tuesday night, Phish played their first of a two-night run at Camden, NJ’s BB&T Pavilion (formerly Susquehanna Bank Center, the E Centre, and the Tweeter Center), returning to the venue for the first time since June 10th, 2011. Fans were eager to get back to the southern-New Jersey shed that Phish has played some noteworthy performances at in the past.After a strong first set, Phish opened with a monstrous 24-minute “Down With Disease”, easily surpassing the previously three played renditions this summer. The jam was complex and intricate, veering in different directions throughout its path, with a Page McConnell-led power-rock segment; blissful, fluffy territory; and a hard-hitting Anastasio guitar build-up, leading to the culmination of one of the summer’s top jams.The Camden “Down With Disease” was not the only noteworthy extended jam of the evening. Later in the set, the band took “Light” on a thrilling 16-minute voyage. With Fishman and Gordon powering the train, Anastasio and McConnell blasted off, delicately building on each other’s solos before Trey took things into his own hands and tore the roof off of BB&T Pavilion. This is one jam you don’t want to sleep on. Thankfully, Phish has now shared pro-shot footage of the fantastic “Light” jam from the webcast-less Camden night one, so everyone can get a glimpse of the magic.You can watch pro-shot footage of Camden’s bubbly and deep “Light” below:Phish – “Light” [Pro-Shot][Video: Phish]Phish’s summer tour continues tomorrow with a performance in Raleigh, NC. The show will be webcast free of charge via LivePhish. For more information on upcoming dates, head to the band’s website.Setlist: Phish | BB&T Pavilion | Camden, NJ | 8/7/18Set One: Crowd Control, No Men In No Man’s Land, Blaze On, Lawn Boy, Infinite> Wilson> Roggae, Rift> 46 Days, Sparkle> David BowieSet Two: Down With Disease> Backwards Down The Numberline> I Always Wanted It This Way> Miss You> Light> Mike’s Song> I Am Hydrogen> Weekapaug GrooveEncore: Show of LifeNotes: Down With Disease was unfinished.last_img read more

Olympic Tree Brings Back Poignant Memories

first_imgA tree is a great way to remember an event like the Olympics. A living, growing treehelps refocus fading memories.Trees represent a renewing of life over generations and an investment in the future.Tree planting can mark the passage of time and great events and accomplishments.One particular tree’s life marks many things, including the Olympics. On the Universityof Georgia campus, just southwest of Stegeman Coliseum, grows a small tree with a roundedcrown. Planted in 1936, the German oak (Quercus robur) is native to centralGermany.In the forests where it grows, the German oak is wide-spreading and broad. German oakscan grow to more than 100 feet tall. The leaves have six to 10 lobes, are roughlythree-by-five inches and are similar to our American white oak (Quercus alba). Theacorns are fairly large and dangle from long stems.In 1936 the Olympic Games were in Berlin. The city, stadium and other venues were awashin the harsh banners of fascism. The National Socialist party had been brought to powerthree years earlier by Adolf Hitler, who saw the Olympics as a way to show cultural andracial superiority to the world.The German oak grows across Europe. Every country where it grows calls it by thatcountry’s name — French oak, Italian oak, Austrian oak and Spanish oak.Here in the United States and in the South, the most common name is English oak.Regardless of its common name, the tree is large, strong and beautiful.The massive size and strength of this native oak symbolized for Hitler the greatness ofthe “Fatherland.” Olympic winners were given a small German oak as well as theOlympic medals.The Olympic athletes carried these young oaks back to the far reaches of the world.Most of the trees didn’t survive.In Georgia, German oak has a hard time growing. Many pests attack it. But by far theworst problems are the warm winters and occasional spring freezes. German oak doesn’t godeep into dormancy during our winters and then tends to grow much too early in spring.Frost is always damaging it.German oak doesn’t handle the hot summer well, either — especially our warm nights.Several plantings in Georgia have died or had to be removed because of growth problems. Atree growing poorly and under constant stress is ripe for attack by many pests and can’trespond well to damage.The German oak on the University of Georgia campus is the tree given to Forrest Towns,who was the university’s first Olympic gold medal winner. Mr. Towns held the world recordin the 110-meter high hurdles for 12 years. For 37 years, he coached track for theBulldogs.The German oak on campus symbolizes many things to the university community. Asmemories fade, the tree grows and reminds us of the Olympic spirit of athletic endeavorsand excellence. The rich green tree reminds us of the man and his accomplishment. Mr.Towns passed away in 1991.Sadder times are caught up in those dark green leaves, too. A few years after hisvictory in Berlin, Mr. Towns lost his brother in the European theater of World War II. Atree lives to help us remember.Maybe you should plant a tree to commemorate your own Olympic experiences.last_img read more

Turfgrass Updates

first_imgMore than 800 people braved the hot August temperatures for a firsthand glimpse of the latest research by University of Georgia scientists at the Turfgrass Research Field Day held Thursday, Aug. 4, on the UGA campus in Griffin, Georgia.“UGA serves as the research and education arm for the green industry in this state,” said Clint Waltz, UGA Cooperative Extension turfgrass specialist and one of the organizers of the field day event. “This field day keeps those in the green industry current and provides the continued education they need to remain profitable and able to provide the best quality products for golf courses, commercial lawns, homeowners’ lawns, parks, recreational sports fields and professional sports fields.” In the morning, green industry professionals rotated through a series of 12-minute talks by scientists from the UGA College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. Topics included the latest research on turfgrass weed management, cultivar development and the application of pesticides while protecting pollinating insects.Self-guided tours in the afternoon included a demonstration on proper pesticide storage and handling, advice on the best fungicides for turfgrass disease control and sessions led by CAES turfgrass graduate students. “This field day attracts the top professionals in the green industry,” Waltz said. “Just like doctors and accountants attend conferences to say current in their fields, industry professionals attend our field day to keep current on best management practices and trends. They saw the latest and greatest in turfgrass science, from pest management, to environmental stewardship, to water management and conservation, to new turfgrasses on the horizon from our UGA breeders.”Professionals from Georgia and the Southeast also met several new UGA employees, including Assistant Dean for Extension and Agriculture and Natural Resources Program Leader Mark McCann and newly appointed UGA turfgrass physiologist David Jespersen.“We have a lot of new personnel who benefited from meeting turfgrass industry contacts, and it was exciting for everyone to see our new turfgrass research facility being constructed in the background,” Waltz said. “Two years ago, we talked about our new facility; this year, everyone saw it being built; and in two years, when the next field day is held, we’ll be in our new building.”For more information on turfgrass research at UGA, go to read more

Douglas administration convenes Economic Response Team

first_imgMontpelier, VT. – The administration of Governor Jim Douglas has called the first meeting of a group of officials from state government, business, and non-government organizations that will provide a rapid response to Vermont companies facing difficulties.The Economic Response Team, a collaborative effort of the state’s economic development partners proposed by the Governor as part of his Inaugural Address, will meet Wednesday, January 28, 2009 at the Pavilion Building in Montpelier from 2:30 to 4:30 p.m.”As we did with the Fuel and Food Partnership, the Economic Response Team will bring together the private and public sector to help Vermont companies at risk due to the current economic downturn,” Governor Douglas said. “By cutting through red tape and bringing all of our combined resources to bear, we can help preserve and even grow jobs.”A small team of representatives from government agencies such as Departments of Economic Development and Labor and the General Assembly, private businesses; and groups like the Regional Development Corporations; the Vermont Economic Development Authority; the Vermont Economic Progress Council; the USDA Rural Development Office and the Vermont Small Business Development Center will comprise the ERT.That kind of quick action could be critical in influencing a company’s decision to close, downsize, or move jobs elsewhere, one economic development official said.”More and more of our employers are part of national or international firms,” said Tim Smith, Executive Director of the Franklin County Industrial Development Corporation. “They make decisions in response to global forces that require fast action. Being able to step up and give them information or help on short notice is critical.”Responses from the Economic Response Team could include state, federal, local, or private assistance with training, financing, lowering utility costs, improving workplace safety, finding opportunities for international trade, government contracting opportunities, and permitting issues.”Our goal is to improve the communications and information sharing among businesses, state government, and economic development partners so that we can identify sooner companies that may be in distress,” said Commissioner of Economic Development Betsy Bishop, who will lead the team. “That will allow us to respond more quickly.”The Emergency Response Team will devise a plan to address an employer’s need, and then appoint a case manager who will direct a group of partners to execute whatever steps need to be taken.”By involving regional development corporations, trade associations, chambers of commerce, bankers and others in the process, we can get more timely information and provide a more timely response,” said Secretary of Commerce and Community Development Kevin Dorn. “This could even allow us to seize opportunities for expansion that present themselves.”last_img read more

Brazil and France Continue Huge Search Operation for AF447 Remains

first_imgBy Dialogo June 09, 2009 RECIFE, June 8, 2009 (AFP) – A huge operation that includes aircraft and ships from Brazil and France continued searching for the bodies of the Air France plane’s occupants that disappeared over the Atlantic a week ago with 228 people aboard, Aeronautics and the Brazilian Navy reported. Patrols covered approximately 10,000 square kilometers in the Atlantic Ocean. On land, a huge contingent worked tirelessly to coordinate the data collected during reconnaissance flights, search planning, and the recovery of aircraft fragments. This is a summary of the methods employed in the operation: BY AIR – 12 Brazilian Aircrafts: Three Hercules aircrafts from the Brazilian Air Force (FAB), four Bandeirante aircrafts (two for maritime patrol, one for reconnaissance, and another as personnel carrier), two Amazon planes and an R-99 (equipped with radar and infrared equipment). Also, a Black Hawk helicopter and a Super Puma, both from the FAB. In total, more than 150 people are operating these aircrafts. – Two aircrafts from the French Air Force: a Falcon 50 operating from Brazilian bases, and an Breguet-Atlantique aircraft from Senegal are also involved in the searches. BY SEA – Five ships from the Brazilian Navy: The patrol ship “Guaiba” (29 men), the “Constitucao” and “Bosisio” frigates (209 and 239 men, respectively), the “Caboclo” sloop (64 sailors) and the ship-tank “Gastón Motta ” (capable of carrying 600 tons of fuel; 121 men). – A French Navy ship, the frigate “Ventôse.” France has already announced the dispatch of a nuclear-powered submarine, the “Emeraude,” to help search the area. BASES OF OPERATIONS AND LOGISTICS – Main Control Center: CINDACTA III (Third Integrated Center of Air Defense and Air Traffic Control), in the town of Recife, Pernambuco (northeast). A “Crisis Room” was created to control the joint operations of the Navy and Air Force. It centralizes all available information. – Secondary Center (used for search aircraft takeoffs): Air Base of Natal (Rio Grande do Norte). – Auxiliary Center: An airport in Fernando de Noronha Island (the main island of the archipelago of the same name, about 350 kilometers from the Brazilian coast). The airport received personnel reinforcements and various refrigeration equipment, including one for body storage. – The Legal Medical Institute of Recife (coroner) has prepared a special team to receive the victims’ bodies. The magnitude of the staff involved will depend on the number of bodies. Eventually, the units could be used at the Military Hospital in Recife. – The Federal Police in Recife sent a team of expert jurists and fingerprint clerks to Fernando de Noronha for early identification efforts. ATTENTION TO FAMILIES – Family assistance for relatives in Brazil is headquartered in a hotel in the area west of Rio de Janeiro, with a team that includes physicians, psychologists, lawyers, and a priest. A team of volunteers specially trained by the French Air France landed last week to help the families.last_img read more